Two nations - Irish and English - lived in Late Medieval Ireland, but borders were never agreed. The Black Death swept through the country in the 13th century and the towns of the English were worst affected. The declining colony was limited to the Pale, a coastal strip between Dublin and Dundalk.
Some Irish kings remained in power. Among the last was Hugh O'Neill, known to history as the Second Earl of Tyrone, who defended Ulster from Tudor encroachment. But despite military skill, and Spanish help, he was eventually defeated at Kinsale in 1601. Independent, Gaelic Ireland ceased to be.
Image caption: The stone inauguration chair of the Clandeboye O’Neills is of Late Medieval date and was used at Castlereagh, Co Down; it is a unique witness to native kingship.
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